Finally, I would like to comment on a side effect, sort of speak, inherent to the introduction of new protective equipment into any sport or activity. Namely, a phenomenon described by others as ‘risk compensation’ means that individuals may increase their threshold of risk if they feel more protected. An easy example I tend to use to describe this is with sky-diving. Most people’s threshold for risk is such that if standing at an open door of an airplane in flight, thousands of feet off the ground, most would probably not elect to jump out of the plane. However, give a person a parachute that will protect them from harm, and their threshold for risk is now elevated so much that they feel safe enough to change their behavior and accept the risk of jumping from the airplane. American football experienced an unfortunate outcome of this risk compensation in the late 60’s and 70’s when helmet designs moved to incorporating a hard outer shell and a facemask. Players began to use their heads during tackling (spearing), a behavior that previously was avoided because their helmets did not afford much protection; and the rate of catastrophic neck injuries sky rocketed. Therefore, we navigate a fine line between protecting participants of sport from injury, and avoiding the unintended consequences that might come from them gaining a false sense of security. Honestly, from my perspective its hard to imagine motorcycle riders doing anything more risky than they already are, but I’m always mindful of the individual that assumes higher risk because they feel more protected.